They tickled the ivories and made jazz historical past: Artwork Tatum and Oscar Peterson


Earlier than we get began, for these of you who could not play the piano, or know a lot about jazz piano, who want a evaluate or need to be taught extra, this amusing and insightful piano lesson, given by the late Oscar Peterson on The Dick Cavett Present in 1975, is a delight, and an schooling on a wide range of types of jazz piano play. He demonstrates the types of Artwork Tatum, Nat King ColeErroll Garner, and George Shearing—and even sings a bar or two. 

Although I’ll even be speaking about Peterson later, the person on the high of my biggest jazz pianists checklist, in settlement with many jazz musicians, is the late nice Artwork Tatum. There’s an oft-repeated story about Tatum; here’s how NPR tells it.

The good stride pianist Fat Waller famously introduced one evening when Tatum walked into the membership the place Waller was taking part in, “I solely play the piano, however tonight, God is in the home.”

This legend is chargeable for considered one of Tatum’s many albums being named God is in the House. Right here is Tatum’s rousing rendition of “Woman Be Good” from that album, with bassist Ebenezer Paul and trumpet participant Frankie Newton.

Tatum’s story is considered one of conquer bodily adversity: He was born legally blind.

Tatum was born in Toledo, Ohio. From delivery he suffered from cataracts which left him blind in a single eye, and with solely very restricted imaginative and prescient within the different. He performed piano from his youth (after switching from the violin) and obtained some formal coaching earlier than creating his wonderful approach on his personal.

A exceptional prodigy, Tatum realized to play by copying piano roll recordings his mom owned, taking part in by ear by the age of three. Tatum would be taught each components of a chunk for 4 palms by feeling the keys depressed on the piano. By the age of six he was capable of play songs initially carried out as duets, unaware that there have been speculated to be two gamers. On this approach, he developed an extremely quick taking part in fashion, with out shedding any of his accuracy. As a baby Tatum was additionally very delicate to the piano’s intonation, and insisted it’s tuned typically.

WGTE-TV produced this brief documentary on Tatum in 1983, for his or her “Toledo Tales” collection. They describe the world of Toledo throughout prohibition, with a thriving nightlife in speakeasy’s and after-hours joints—the place younger Artwork bought his begin.  

Musicians who got here by way of Toledo—like Duke Ellington and Fat Waller—inspired him to go away and head to New York, nevertheless it didn’t occur till Tatum was able to go. 

In “Art Tatum, Greatest Jazz Pianist Who Ever Lived,” Avil Beckford writes about Tatum’s eventual exit from Ohio.

In 1932, jazz singer Adelaide Corridor heard Tatum carry out and introduced him to New York as her second accompanist. He made a lot of the alternative – that very same 12 months he made his first report as her accompanist and the following 12 months he made his first solo report. Tatum would stick with Corridor for 2 years and through that point she gave him more and more extra demanding roles.

In New York, Tatum spent the time wanted to find after-hours golf equipment, and sought out the perfect gamers. Tatum had a really aggressive and combative nature, all the time wanting to indicate off his superior expertise. He would wait till all of the gamers had carried out and proven their finest, then he would merely outplay them. He would play what they performed then added to it with ingenious and inventive variations.

In accordance with Tatum’s biographer James Lester, “The reigning kings of jazz piano, Fat Waller, Willie “the Lion” Smith and James P. Johnson, “invited” Tatum to a session the next evening [the night after his first appearance with Adelaide Hall]. By all accounts, the Toledo teenager ascended to the head that night, by no means to be dethroned. As author Robert Doerschuk reported mentor Waller’s phrases: “That Tatum, he was simply too good…. He had an excessive amount of approach. When that man activates the powerhouse, don’t nobody play him down. He seems like a brass band.””

As a side-note, in the event you’ve by no means heard of Adelaide Hall, who was a significant star, and is assumed to have initiated scat singing, right here’s a hyperlink to a 1989 special on her life and career.

Within the WGTE-TV documentary, classical violin virtuoso Itzak Perlman—who was wowed by Tatum—talks about Tatum’s facility with the classical style. Right here’s Tatum styling Dvorak

For a deeper exploration of Tatum, his music and his affect on jazz, I counsel you learn his biography by James Lester: Too Marvelous for Words: The Life & Genius of Art Tatum.

Artwork Tatum outlined the bounds of the potential in jazz piano. Gunther Schuller known as Tatum’s taking part in “a marvel of perfection…. His deep-in-the-keys full piano sonority, the tone and contact management in pyrotechnical passages…are miracles of efficiency.” Whitney Balliett wrote “no pianist has ever hit notes extra fantastically. Every one–no matter how briskly the tempo–was mild and full and resonant, just like the letters on a finely printed web page.” His well-known runs have been in comparison with the arc left in opposition to the evening sky by a Fourth-of-July sparkler. And to have heard him play, one musician mentioned, “was as awe-inspiring as to have seen the Grand Canyon or Halley’s Comet.”

Now, in Too Marvelous For Phrases, James Lester gives the primary full-length biography of the best virtuoso performer within the historical past of jazz. Earlier than this quantity, little was identified about Tatum, even amongst jazz afficionados. What had been his origins, who taught him and who supplied early pianistic influences, how did he break into the jazz discipline, what function did he play within the growth of different jazz gamers, and what was he like when he wasn’t taking part in? To reply these questions, Lester has performed virtually 100 interviews for this ebook, with surviving household, childhood pals, schoolteachers, and the well-known jazz musicians who performed with him or knew him.

Lester creates a memorable portrait of this distinctive musician and of the colourful jazz world of the Nineteen Thirties and Forties, capturing the complexity and vitality of this exceptional performer. Tatum, who was just about blind, struggling between 70% and 90% visible impairment, emerges as cheerful, fun-loving, energetic and out-going, with not one of the demonic self-destructiveness that appeared to hang-out such jazz greats as Charlie Parker or Billie Vacation. He typically joked about his blindness, however didn’t prefer it talked about as a handicap and most popular to pre-plan his entrance to the piano in a membership, moderately than have somebody lead him there. He was merely inexhaustible and had a life-long behavior of staying up all evening after a gig, often looking for an after-hours membership during which to pay attention and play till dawn. Lester additionally reveals that Tatum was beneficiant with youthful gamers, however his extraordinary technical brilliance typically devastated them. No much less a expertise than Oscar Peterson remembers that after first listening to Tatum, “I gave up the piano for 2 strong months, and I had crying matches at evening.” 

Peterson builds on the facility Tatum held over him in this typically humorous dialog with Depend Basie; they share recollections of Tatum on this 1975 BBC present. As Peterson states, “Artwork Tatum used to actually intimidate pianists.”

Nonetheless struggling to wrap your head round Tatum’s sheer virtuosity? Listed here are three very totally different variations of him taking part in “Tea for Two.”  (3 variations as compared: 1: 00:001933. 2: 03:151939. 3: 05:54,1953. 

Which one do you favor?

Sadly, there isn’t a lot video footage accessible of Tatum taking part in. Although you possibly can hear his mastery, watching his fingers float over the keys is, in and of itself, a magical expertise.

Oscar Peterson—talked about above—was and nonetheless is taken into account to be one of the towering giants of the jazz keyboards from his period. When he handed on, he had a must-read, lengthy obituary, written by Steve Voce for UK’s The Impartial. A lot beloved in England, Peterson was born in Montreal, Canada. 

Following Oscar Peterson on stage at a live performance in 1967, Duke Ellington remarked: “After I was a small boy my music trainer was Mrs Clinkscales. The very first thing she ever mentioned to me was, ‘Edward, all the time bear in mind, no matter you do, do not sit down on the piano after Oscar Peterson’.”

In 1953, Nat King Cole mentioned to Peterson, “I will make a take care of you, Oscar. You do not sing and I will not play the piano.” Peterson had simply recorded his first album of vocals, accompanying himself on the piano. His voice sounded remarkably like Cole’s and his piano fashion had additionally developed in order that it sounded near Cole’s work with Cole’s personal trio. The 2 jazz musicians agreed, and Oscar Peterson gave up singing, whereas Nat King Cole recorded piano-less vocals backed by enormous orchestras.

Earlier, in 1945, a 16-year-old John Williams, later to be Stan Getz’s pianist, was on tour in Canada with the Mal Hallett band and was taking part in in Montreal. “All of the speak within the crowd was of a superb native pianist,” mentioned Williams, “and as we performed, all of a sudden, between numbers, the packed viewers within the dance corridor parted just like the Purple Sea and this enormous man got here up in direction of the bandstand. With some perception, I vacated that piano bench fast and he sat down. He performed, and we had been shocked. I had by no means heard anybody play like that.”

Peterson was a baby prodigy, and he’d been taking part in “like that” for most of his life.

Oscar Peterson was the fourth of 5 youngsters. He was raised within the poor St. Henri neighbourhood of Montreal, also referred to as Little Burgundy. His dad and mom hailed from St. Kitts and the British Virgin Islands. His mom, Kathleen, was a home employee. His father, Daniel, was a boatswain within the Service provider Marines who turned a porter with the Canadian Pacific Railway. A self-taught novice organist and strict disciplinarian, he led the household band in live shows at church buildings and neighborhood halls. He insisted that the entire Peterson youngsters be taught piano and a brass instrument. Every in flip taught the following youngest youngster.

Oscar started taking part in trumpet and piano at age 5. He centered solely on piano at age eight following a year-long battle with tuberculosis. (The illness claimed the lifetime of his eldest brother, Fred, at age 16.) Oscar’s first teacher was his sister, Daisy. She turned a revered piano trainer in Montreal’s Black neighborhood. Her later pupils included the jazz musicians Oliver Jones, Joe Sealy and Reg Wilson. Peterson’s brother, Chuck, turned knowledgeable trumpet participant. His different sister, Could, taught piano. She additionally labored for a time as Oscar’s private assistant.

Peterson studied piano throughout his youth and youths with lecturers of extensively totally different backgrounds. On the age of 12, he briefly took piano classes from Louis Hooper, a classically educated Canadian veteran of the Harlem jazz scene of the Nineteen Twenties. Later, Peterson attended the Conservatoire de musique du Québec à Montréal. At 14, he studied with Paul de Marky, a Hungarian live performance pianist within the Nineteenth-century custom of Franz Liszt. Peterson was additionally a classmate of trumpet participant Maynard Ferguson. They performed collectively in a dance band led by Maynard’s brother, Percy.

The virtuoso tells his personal story, and plenty of jazz historical past together with it, in A Jazz Odyssey: The Life of Oscar Peterson.

Oscar Peterson’s profession as a jazz pianist has spanned over 5 a long time. Throughout that point, he has recorded practically 90 albums, received seven Grammys, and earned lifetime achievement awards from the Black Theatre Workshop, the Peabody Conservatory of Music, and the Nationwide Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences. He has performed with, and are available to know, lots of the style’s biggest contributors, together with Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Depend Basie, Nat King Cole, Louis Armstrong, and Duke Ellington[…] 

Peterson guides readers by way of the turbulent Forties, when he was taking part in with the Johnny Holmes Orchestra in Montreal, and first met Norman Granz – the jazz producer who would launch his profession. With Granz, he joined Jazz on the Philharmonic, taking part in at Carnegie Corridor and touring throughout North America. A Jazz Odyssey additionally brings readers to the delivery of the Oscar Peterson Trio – the place Peterson would hone his trademark association of piano, guitar, and bass and work with the likes of Ray Brown, Barney Kessel, and Herb Ellis. Peterson describes the infinite follow classes and tireless work ethic that earned the group the status of the toughest working trio within the enterprise. He additionally describes assembly his idol Artwork Tatum through the Fifties and touring with him in Jazz on the Philharmonic.

2003’s Oscar Peterson: Protecting the Groove Alive also tackles his story. Alongside the best way, Peterson and different musicians, like Herbie Hancock and Diana Krall, paint a portrait of the trials, perils, and rewards of life on the street and within the music enterprise. 

Peterson and his spouse additionally discuss his main stroke in 1993, which took the usage of his left hand. With the assistance of family and friends, he fought again and performed once more. 

That is the trailer.

For these of you who have to cleanse your palates of all of the ugly that’s swirling round us, making a miasma of unease and discontent, right here’s a heavy dose of Oscar like to brighten your day, spanning a number of totally different performances along with his Trio, from 1963-1965.

Should you’d like much more perception into Peterson’s life, a second documentary, from 1995’s Oscar Peterson: Music in the Key of Oscar, is jam-packed with performances and interviews with “a Who’s Who of jazz legends,” together with Quincy Jones and Ella Fitzgerald. 

It’s tough for me to pick a favourite Peterson tune, however I‘ll depart you with considered one of my faves: “Nigerian Market,” which he debuted on the 1981 Montreux Jazz Pageant. This 1985 efficiency was recorded dwell in Berlin.

Although Peterson has handed, he’s still making waves; new efforts to call a key Montreal plaza in his honor ramped up simply this month!

Together with his magical tunes so masterfully executed, it’s little surprise why individuals name Oscar Peterson the best jazz pianist ever. His expertise has been celebrated by the world with a large number of awards and accolades, together with eight Grammys, the Order of Canada, and a statue unveiled in Ottawa by Queen Elizabeth II in 2010.

However some say one thing is lacking: recognition from his hometown of Montreal. “Though a small park has been named in Little Burgundy, we don’t assume it rises to the stature and the legend that he was,” mentioned municipal opposition chief Lionel Perez. Perez says his celebration will introduce a movement at Montreal Metropolis Corridor to rename Place des Festivals “Place Oscar Peterson.”Place des Festivals is situated in downtown Montreal and hosts the world’s largest jazz competition.

Oscar Peterson’s widow, Kelly Peterson mentioned the initiative could be a “fantastic” method to honour her late husband’s jazz legacy.“I additionally assume that as a result of it’s the place the place the Montreal Jazz Worldwide Pageant, that it’s acceptable,” Peterson mentioned.

I hope it occurs. 

I had deliberate to cowl Mary Lou Williams, Thelonious Monk, and maybe to squeeze in McCoy Tyner as nicely, however alas, expensive readers, that simply didn’t occur, as a result of I ran out of area. So tune in subsequent week, similar time, similar place. 

You possibly can submit and forged votes to your favorites in feedback, and whereas the ivories tickle, let the sound of the piano information you right down to the polls as early voting continues.

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