That means two issues: first, that there’s a big management vacuum within the Republican caucus proper now, and second, that there’s additionally a rising divide between authoritarians and non-authoritarians cut up inside the social gathering that doesn’t fairly map onto conventional coverage preferences. Each have severe implications for the GOP’s future.

The 4 roll calls the place we’re investigating Republican voting patterns are the votes to:

This time, Trump was impeached by a vote of 232-197, with all 222 Democrats voting for it and Republicans voting in opposition to it 197-10. The Electoral School objection, in the meantime, failed 282-138, with Democrats once more unanimously opposed however Republicans in favor 138-64. (Republicans also tried to repudiate Arizona’s electoral votes, however that garnered barely much less assist, and in any case, nobody voted to reject Arizona’s votes however settle for Pennsylvania’s, making the latter a extra significant vote to research.)

The second pair of votes each required two-thirds majorities. The $2,000 stimulus checks, which needed to hit that threshold as a result of the laws was introduced up on an expedited foundation, narrowly exceeded the mark, 275-134. Forty-four Republicans voted for it however 130 voted in opposition to the plan, regardless of Trump’s assist for the measure, whereas Democrats have been 231-2 in assist.

The override of Trump’s NDAA veto handed by a significantly wider 322-87 margin, with 109 Republicans truly opposing Trump and simply 66 sticking with him. This was the one vote of the 4 that noticed a large numbers of Democrats go in opposition to their social gathering, with 20 opposing the override whereas 212 backed it. Nevertheless, as we’ll talk about on the finish of this piece, these dissenters have been principally from the social gathering’s left-most flank and have been voting to oppose the navy’s huge finances slightly than to assist Trump in any approach.

Every of those roll calls alone exhibits a severe cut up inside GOP ranks: Even on impeachment, the ten Republicans who voted in opposition to Trump set a file for the biggest variety of representatives impeaching their very own social gathering’s president. However the divide goes a lot deeper.

With a “sure” or “no” vote potential on every of those votes, that offers us 16 potential buckets for members to fall into. Nevertheless, not the entire Home GOP’s 211 present members present up beneath as a result of we’re solely together with representatives who participated in all 4 votes. That winds up excluding 64 Republicans, together with all freshmen (since two of the votes came about on the tail finish of the final Congress), in addition to anybody who skipped yet another or of those votes for no matter cause.

Nonetheless, we are able to analyze a significant proportion of the GOP caucus, about 70% of it in complete. And underscoring the extent of the fracture we’re seeing, Republicans occupy no fewer than 11 of those 16 potential buckets, starting from as few as one member as much as 43. Democrats, in contrast, wound up in simply three buckets, and nearly all—196 of the 217 who forged votes on all 4 measures—have been in only a single grouping. You’ll be able to see these buckets, which we’ll study one after the other, visualized slightly below:

After all, it’s potential to search out any arbitrary set of votes that present numerous divides for both social gathering, however this set is something however arbitrary. Moderately, these have been 4 of probably the most consequential votes the Home has been referred to as upon to take since Trump’s first impeachment, and so they all came about in a span of simply 16 days, making them worthy of collective research.

To that finish, we’ll begin with the members who voted the way in which that Trump would have wished every time: “no” on impeachment, “sure” on difficult the Pennsylvania votes, “sure” on larger stimulus checks, and “no” on overriding Trump’s veto of the navy finances. In different phrases, this was—in principle—the group of most maximally MAGA members:

Impeachment: no; Pennsylvania: sure; $2,000 checks: sure; Override: no (8 members)

Mario Diaz-Balart (FL-25); Greg Pence (IN-06); Clay Higgins (LA-03); Jason Smith (MO-08); Jeff Van Drew (NJ-02); Lee Zeldin (NY-01); Chris Jacobs (NY-27); Michael Burgess (TX-26)

Apparently, and encouragingly, there have been only a few members who took this strategy. It’s potential that exhibits that Trump, whose outreach to Congress has been each ham-fisted but perfunctory, and who has little connection to conventional Republican avenues of energy, not has fairly a lot affect on the Home. Alternatively, it may also present that whereas Trump’s odd mishmash of most popular points and grievances has had loads of resonance with low-information voters who haven’t felt at dwelling in both social gathering, it was by no means actually a great match for the Republican Celebration, which isn’t precisely recognized for both handing out cash to individuals who need assistance or for telling the navy to take a hike.

And whereas this group ought to superficially characterize probably the most Trumpy brigade potential, it truly doesn’t embody many members from the nuttiest ranks of the GOP—maybe simply Louisiana’s Clay Higgins (greatest recognized for his apocalyptic tweeting), and Indiana’s Greg Pence, who, in case it wasn’t clear from the final identify, additionally occurs to be the vp’s brother and should share his sibling’s toadying tendencies.

As an alternative, this bucket comprises a few GOP members with probably the most average (at the very least on a left-right axis) voting information however who’re uniquely cross-pressured: Mario Diaz-Balart, who represents a principally Cuban-American district within the Miami space; and Jeff Van Drew, who was elected as a Democrat however infamously switched events in the course of the earlier impeachment.

Impeachment: no; Pennsylvania: sure; $2,000 checks: sure; Override: sure (13 members)

Robert Aderholt (AL-04); Rick Crawford (AR-01); Mike Garcia (CA-25); Ken Calvert (CA-42); John Rutherford (FL-04); Jackie Walorski (IN-02); Jim Baird (IN-04); Hal Rogers (KY-05); Jack Bergman (MI-01); Elise Stefanik (NY-21); Invoice Johnson (OH-06); Frank Lucas (OK-03); Tom Cole (OK-04)

The subsequent bucket options Trumpy Republicans who’re anti-democracy and pro-stimulus however simply couldn’t say no to the navy. One uncommon identify on this bucket is Mike Garcia, who holds the bluest district within the nation that’s represented by a Republican (California’s twenty fifth, the place he narrowly gained reelection in November after extra comfortably profitable a particular election final spring) and is somebody you’d due to this fact count on to take a extra average path, maybe as much as and together with impeachment. Apparently, although, he thinks a base-first technique is his greatest path to squeaking out one other victory in 2022, despite his district’s leftward trend. One other is Elise Stefanik, till not too long ago an establishmentarian however who within the final 12 months has seemingly gone all-in on utilizing Trumpism as a way of climbing the management ladder.

Impeachment: no; Pennsylvania: sure; $2,000 checks: no; Override: sure (32 members)

Mike Rogers (AL-03); Mo Brooks (MO-05); Doug Lamborn (CO-05); Buddy Carter (GA-01); Mike Bost (IL-12); Jim Banks (IN-03); Mike Johnson (LA-04); Garret Graves (LA-06); Tim Walberg (MI-07); Blaine Leutkemeyer (MO-03); Vicki Hartzler (MO-04); Sam Graves (MO-06); Trent Kelly (MS-01); Michael Visitor (MS-03); Steven Palazzo (MS-04); Virginia Foxx (NC-05); David Rouzer (NC-07); Richard Hudson (NC-08); Steve Chabot (OH-01); Bob Gibbs (OH-07); Dan Meuser (PA-09); Fred Keller (PA-12); Glenn Thompson (PA-15); Mike Kelly (PA-16); Joe Wilson (SC-02); William Timmons (SC-04); Chuck Fleischmann (TN-03); Mark Inexperienced (TN-07); David Kustoff (TN-08); Roger Williams (TX-25); Chris Stewart (UT-02); Rob Wittman (VA-01)

The subsequent batch, which voted in opposition to impeachment and stimulus checks however supported difficult the electors and the navy finances, is made up of extra standard-issue, “normie” members of the Republican Celebration’s proper flank, together with a quantity (like Vicky Hartzler and Tim Walberg) who’re recognized extra for old-school social conservatism. Apparently, although, one identify right here is Mo Brooks, who has been one of many loudest voices inciting violence and is a foremost goal of censure efforts. Regardless of his hyperlinks to Trumpism, he couldn’t get on board with COVID reduction and couldn’t oppose the armed forces both. The latter will not be a coincidence, since his Huntsville-area district is closely depending on navy and aerospace know-how, centered across the Redstone Arsenal.

Impeachment: no; Pennsylvania: sure; $2,000 checks: no; Override: no (43 members)

Gary Palmer (AL-06); Paul Gosar (AZ-04); Andy Biggs (AZ-05); David Schweikert (AZ-06); Debbie Lesko (AZ-08); Doug LaMalfa (CA-01); Devin Nunes (CA-22); Matt Gaetz (FL-01); Invoice Posey (FL-08); Greg Steube (FL-17); Brian Mast (FL-18); Barry Loudermilk (GA-11); Rick Allen (GA-12); Russ Fulcher (ID-01); Ron Estes (KS-04); Steve Scalise (LA-01); Billy Lengthy (MO-07); Dan Bishop (NC-09); Ted Budd (NC-13); Adrian Smith (NE-03); Jim Jordan (OH-04); Warren Davidson (OH-08); Kevin Hern (OK-01); Scott Perry (PA-04); Lloyd Smucker (PA-11); John Joyce (PA-13); Man Reschenthaler (PA-14); Jeff Duncan (SC-03); Ralph Norman (SC-05); Tim Burchett (TN-02); Scott DesJarlais (TN-04); John Rose (TN-06); Louie Gohmert (TX-01); Lance Gooden (TX-05); Randy Weber (TX-14); Jodey Arrington (TX-19); Michael Cloud (TX-27); Brian Babin (TX-36); Ben Cline (VA-06); Morgan Griffith (VA-09); Tom Tiffany (WI-07); Alex Mooney (WV-02); Carol Miller (WV-03) 

The largest bucket can be in all probability probably the most hardcore of the bunch: They’ll comply with Trump not simply on difficult the election but additionally on stiff-arming the navy, however, true to kind, they simply can’t get on board with sending individuals cash. Not coincidentally, a lot of the members of the Freedom Caucus (probably the most hard-right of the Home GOP’s ideological blocs) are discovered right here, and also you’ll in all probability acknowledge the names of a number of the loudest insurrectionists, like Paul Gosar, Andy Biggs, Matt Gaetz, and Louie Gohmert. One odd tidbit is that whereas this can be a disproportionately Southern group, all 4 of Arizona’s remaining Republican representatives are right here too.

Impeachment: no; Pennsylvania: no; $2,000 checks: sure; Override: sure (6 members)

Rodney Davis (IL-13); Pete Stauber (MN-08); Ann Wagner (MO-02); Chris Smith (NJ-04); Brian Fitzpatrick (PA-01); Michael McCaul (TX-10)

Right here we’ve got Republicans from the considerably extra average finish of the caucus who voted no on difficult the electors, and sure on stimulus checks and the navy finances, however couldn’t take the ultimate step of voting for impeachment.

One slightly sudden identify is Texas’s Michael McCaul: He hasn’t had a very average file previously however has confronted more and more tough elections in his suburban district the previous few instances and could also be attempting to adapt. In a statement he launched in the course of the impeachment vote, he precisely prophesied, “I really worry there could also be extra info that come to mild sooner or later that can put me on the improper aspect of this debate,” however for some cause couldn’t take that closing step.

One different shock, from the other way, was Brian Fitzpatrick, who represents a swingy suburban district exterior of Philadelphia. Primarily based on his general file, Fitzpatrick in all probability was the likeliest Republican to vote for impeachment who in the end didn’t. (He as an alternative led the push for a “censure” different, which was a non-starter with Democrats.)

Impeachment: no; Pennsylvania: no; $2,000 checks: sure; Override: no (3 members)

James Comer (KY-01); Tom Reed (NY-23); David McKinley (WV-01)

What looks as if the least coherent sequence of votes, at the very least for Republican members—in opposition to impeachment, in opposition to difficult the election, and for larger stimulus, but additionally in opposition to the navy finances—can be a bucket with only some members in it. There’s additionally not a lot consistency right here when it comes to its members, starting from northeastern pragmatist Tom Reed to very conservative southerner James Comer.

Impeachment: no; Pennsylvania: no; $2,000 checks: no; Override: sure (27 members)

French Hill (AR-02); Steve Womack (AR-03); Michael Waltz (FL-06); Vern Buchanan (FL-16); Drew Ferguson (GA-03); Austin Scott (GA-08); Mike Simpson (ID-02); Darin LaHood (IL-18); Larry Bucshon (IN-08); Brett Guthrie (KY-02); Invoice Huizenga (MI-02); John Moolenaar (MI-04); Patrick McHenry (NC-10); Kelly Armstrong (ND-AL); Don Bacon (NE-02); Mark Amodei (NV-02); Brad Wenstrup (OH-02); Bob Latta (OH-05); Mike Turner (OH-10); Troy Balderson (OH-12); Steve Stivers (OH-15); Dusty Johnson (SD-AL); Dan Crenshaw (TX-02); Van Taylor (TX-03); John Curtis (UT-02); Cathy McMorris Rodgers (WA-05); Mike Gallagher (WI-08);

This bucket options a lot of what’s left of the orthodox Republican institution—not “centrist,” in fact, however positioned across the ideological midpoint of the GOP caucus, which remains to be very conservative. This group is of course anti-stimulus and pro-military, however whereas its members aren’t prepared to play too-obvious video games with democracy, they’re content material to let Trump do a lot worse, which is why they opposed impeachment.

Impeachment: no; Pennsylvania: no; $2,000 checks: no; Override: no (7 members)

Bruce Westerman (AR-04); Tom McClintock (CA-04); Thomas Massie (KY-04); Tom Emmer (MN-06); Chip Roy (TX-21); Bryan Steil (WI-01); Glenn Grothman (WI-06)

These are the across-the-board “nays.” Maybe unsurprisingly, probably the most libertarian-flavored members who stay (after Justin Amash’s departure; he voted in opposition to checks and the navy finances, however was not in workplace for the Electoral School vote) are seen right here, most notably Thomas Massie.

Impeachment: sure; Pennsylvania: sure; $2,000 checks: no; Override: no (1 member)

Tom Rice (SC-07)

The smallest bucket of all comprises simply Tom Rice, who represents a dark-red district within the Myrtle Seashore space. Whereas not a member of the Freedom Caucus, he does have a voting file that locations him properly to the suitable of the GOP’s midpoint. Had been it not for his impeachment vote, he’d have wound up within the largest grouping, however as an alternative, he’s all on his personal. Rice’s vote was uncharacteristic sufficient that he may need merely pushed the improper button in the course of the roll name, however his subsequent statement acknowledged his stunning transfer: “I have backed this President by way of thick and skinny for 4 years. I campaigned for him and voted for him twice. However, this utter failure is inexcusable.

Impeachment: sure; Pennsylvania: no; $2,000 checks: sure; Override: sure (4 members)

Adam Kinzinger (IL-16); Fred Upton (MI-06); John Katko (NY-24); Jaime Herrera Beutler (WA-03)

This batch, which voted pro-impeachment, pro-democracy, pro-checks, and pro-military, contains the low-profile however extraordinarily sturdy Northeasterner John Katko, in addition to Adam Kinzinger, who has not too long ago grow to be one of the vocal anti-Trump Republicans. Whereas Katko is among the few Republicans who represents a district that Joe Biden gained, and Upton and Herrera Beutler are in aggressive districts, Kinzinger definitely isn’t; his foremost danger can be in a Republican main.

It’s additionally value noting that the majority Democrats additionally fall on this bucket. This excludes the 20 who voted in opposition to the navy finances, and likewise Kurt Schrader, the lone remaining Democrat to vote in opposition to the $2,000 checks.

Impeachment: sure; Pennsylvania: no; $2,000 checks: no; Override: sure (3 members)

Anthony Gonzalez (OH-16); Dan Newhouse (WA-04); Liz Cheney (WY-AL)

Lastly, listed here are the few Republicans who voted for impeachment and in opposition to difficult the electors, however who in any other case caught to conservative orthodoxy. The largest identify right here is likely to be Liz Cheney, who’s No. 3 within the Home management hierarchy, however who has been not too long ago very important of Trump. She may be a possible challenger to Minority Chief Kevin McCarthy or Minority Whip Steve Scalise sooner or later, however given the outraged calls for her resignation from fellow Republicans following her vote, her motives are tough to evaluate—except she actually imagines the GOP will embrace an anti-Trump future.

The opposite two members of this trio are sophomore Anthony Gonzalez, a former NFL star who represents a suburban district within the Cleveland space and has tended towards the average finish of the caucus, and Dan Newhouse, who represents a conservative space in jap Washington however is probably insulated from a problem from the suitable because of the odd nature of Washington’s top-two main system. (Democratic Rep. Kurt Schrader of Oregon additionally adopted this sample of votes.)

The current McCarthy/Cheney rigidity, the truth is, factors to how the rising fractures within the Republican Celebration don’t completely map onto the normal left-to-right axis. Cheney, as an illustration, has a considerably extra conservative voting file than McCarthy, at the very least in response to the widely-used DW-Nominate system of scoring votes.

As an alternative, it’s extra a conflict between Trump-style populist authoritarianism (to which McCarthy is merely an adjunct) versus the extra old-school Republican elite traditionalism that Cheney embodies. It will be bizarre to say that Cheney is “anti-authoritarian”; slightly, what she’s objecting to is that Trumpism is the improper sort of authoritarianism. Possibly a greater approach of describing it’s that conventional Republican conservatism is extra a couple of decentralized, slow-moving type of autocracy that’s unfold round quite a lot of establishments (the navy, the judiciary, massive enterprise) slightly than consolidated in a cult of persona round one very erratic particular person.

It’s definitely potential that these divisions will recede, particularly as soon as Biden is inaugurated and Chuck Schumer is elevated to Senate majority chief—Republicans, missing any type of affirmative agenda, have all the time loved a extra harmonious life within the minority the place they merely oppose every part that Democrats put forth. But when they persist, they may imply extra turmoil forward for the GOP and undermining the social gathering’s probabilities of reclaiming the Home within the coming midterm elections.


P.S. We’ll shut out with a have a look at the 20 Democrats who dissented on the override of Trump’s veto of the navy finances:

Jared Huffman (CA-02); Mark DeSaulnier (CA-11); Barbara Lee (CA-13); Ro Khanna (CA-17); Jimmy Gomez (CA-34); Tulsi Gabbard (HI-02); Chuy Garcia (IL-04); Jim McGovern (MA-02); Joe Kennedy (MA-04); Ayanna Pressley (MA-07); Rashida Tlaib (MI-13); Ilhan Omar (MN-05); Grace Meng (NY-06); Yvette Clarke (NY-09); Adriano Espaillat (NY-13); Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (NY-14); Suzanne Bonamici (OR-01); Earl Blumenauer (OR-03); Pramila Jayapal (WA-07); Mark Pocan (WI-02)

Unsurprisingly, this checklist correlates very a lot with Progressive Caucus membership, in addition to lots of the left-most Democratic members underneath the DW-Nominate system. This means the vote was not pro-Trump however slightly in opposition to present ranges of navy spending, with the potential exception of the inscrutable Tulsi Gabbard, considered one of solely two Democrats on this checklist whose time period ended after this vote and due to this fact wasn’t current for the Jan. 6 challenges to the Electoral School or the second impeachment vote.

All of those Democrats in fact backed $2,000 checks and impeachment, and opposed overturning the election outcomes, a sample adopted by zero Republicans.